The Opportunity

Dairy producers are turning to linPRO-R as a strategy to optimize the performance, health, GHG emissions and production of their herds.


  • Fat               21.0%
  • Protein        22.6%
  • Omega-3    10.0%
  • RUP, %CP    40.0%

The health benefits of Omega-3s have been well documented in humans and are now being applied to livestock nutrition as well. During a cow’s transition period, she undergoes major physiological changes as she prepares to birth her calf and start the lactation cycle. Ultimately, a cow that is nourished properly will have better immunity, which will help support her future reproductive performance and enable her to handle the stresses of high milk production.

Green House Gas (GHG) Emissions ~ Methane

Additional benefits can be obtained when linPRO-R is added to the diet of the lactating cow.  We are currently performing a trial in vivo with Dr Ermias Kebreab from UC Davis CA and finishing the data collection of an in vitro trial with Dr Antonio Faciola from University of Florida. These third-party research studies investigate milk production, quality (including the fatty acid composition) rumen fat digestion and methane emissions at various feeding rates. The hypothesis is that linPRO-R will avoid significant bio hydronation of the PUFA by the microbes in the rumen and will make the fats available for digestion in the lower intestine. This will maintain milk fat composition while reducing methane production.  We are expecting the results from these trials in October 2023 (U of Florida) and April 2024 (UC Davis CA).

Why LinPRO-R

LinPRO-R is a supplemental fat, protein and vitamin E source for dairy cows made by dry-extruding several ingredients including flaxseed, alfalfa and peas. What makes linPRO-R unique is that it is an easy-to-use, stable source of land-based Omega-3s that can be added to a dairy cow’s diet to provide a rumen-protected source of these essential fatty acids.

The key to linPRO-R’s success is the dry extrusion process and its ability to protect polyunsaturated Omega-3 fatty acids through the formation of protein-fat complexes. Through the development of this product, with ingredients including flaxseed, alfalfa, peas and Vitamin E, O&T Farms has successfully increased the rumen escape value of dietary omega-3 fatty acids and developed a reliable, consistent and easy method to incorporate Omega-3s into dairy cow diets.  Laval University will be trialing linPRO-R at different inclusion rates in the diet of lactating cows and will compare the fat composition of the different diets and the impact on butter hardness.  We believe the superior quality of our Omega-3 by-pass fat will improve butter without compromising the milk fat levels.  We expect trial results from this trial by December 2024.

Key Benefits of LinPRO-R


  • Positive immunity response
    • Reduced somatic cell count
    • Reduction in mastitis
    • Less involuntary culls
  • Improve reproductive performance
  • Increased milk yield
    • Maintain milk component yields
  • Excellent source of RUP and rumen-protected lysine and methionine
  • Dry-extrusion mitigates the biohydrogenation within the rumen of the Omega-3 polyunsaturated fats
  • Omega-3 enriched milk products

LinPRO-R is supported by:


I. University Research

Penn State University Research

“Ongoing research at Penn State supports the hypothesis that feeding a diet enriched in omega-3 fatty acids (linPRO-R) from calving to 21 days after calving alters immune cell function in transition dairy cows.”

Dr. Troy L, Ott, Professor of Reproductive Physiology at Penn State University

Feeding linPRO-R to early lactating dairy cattle (0-21 DIM) reduced expression of the inflammatory marker IL-6 and lower the production of potentially damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) by neutrophils. The reduction in inflammation may result in optimized animal health and performance during the subsequent lactation periods.

Figure 1: Effect of linPRO-R on Neutrophil activity in early lactating dairy cattle (Fetter and Ott, 2017) Percentage of Neutrophils Phagocytosing tended to be lower in the treatment compared to control (P = 0.09). The percentage of Neutrophils producing ROS was significantly reduced in treatment compared to control (P < 0.01)

Figure 2: Effect of linPRO-R on expression of inflammatory markers in early lactating dairy cattle (Fetter and Ott, 2017). Expression of TNF and IL10 were not significantly different when treatment was compared to control (P <0.01). Cytokine expression of IL 6 was reduced in treatment compared to the control (P < 0.01)

II. University Extension Research and Results


“It is concluded that feeding linPRO-R improves production, health and reproduction performance within a dairy herd. Improved production efficiencies result in positive economic returns for producers along with an enhanced quality of life for the cow and a reduced incidence of involuntary culls from the herd.”

– Dr. Peter Robinson, Extension Professor at UC Davis California

It is concluded that feeding linPRO-R improves production, health and reproductive performance within a dairy herd. Improved production efficiencies result in positive economic returns for producers along with an enhanced quality of life for the cow and a reduced incidence of involuntary culls in the herd.

1 2017 on-farm trial conducted on large California dairy operation. Results of three services.

2 2017 on-farm trial done in collaboration with the University of California, Davis

3 2017 on-farm trial done in collaboration with the University of California, Davis

III. Dairy Owners


“Over the course of the last year, linPRO-R has played a significant role in our dairies pregnancy rate improvement. We can also physically observe the benefits that the Omega3’s are providing to our cows appearance; attributable to the improved Somatic Cell Count.”

– Marinus Dijkstra,
California Dairy Operation

Improvement of 21-day pregnancy rate when linPRO-R is fed at rate of 1.5 lbs/ cow/day DM.

Flaxseed vs. LinPRO-R


Flaxseed ≠ Flaxseed ≠ Flaxseed


Researchers have found that straight ground flaxseed or flaxseed oil can cause digestive disturbances in cattle, especially in the rumen. LinPRO-R is the best solution for providing Omega-3s to ruminants. The health advantages of flaxseed have been known for many years, but the limiting factor for dairy cows has been the rumen escape value.

The unprotected polyunsaturated fatty acids (Omega-3s) can harm the microbial community in the rumen; therefore, the microbes change the structure of incoming dietary fatty acids to a saturated form.

This process is called biohydrogenation, which limits the availability of Omega-3 fatty acids by the animal and can lead to other production issues such as milk fat depression. While whole flaxseed has been explored as an option to protect Omega-3s from the rumen microbes, it has been found that the animal cannot effectively digest the oilseed in the small intestine and most of it is wasted.

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